It is decorated with small sandstone or brick statues representing mythical animals, which are mounts ridden by gods in the Indian tradition: There are small decorative towers at the corners of the 1st and 2nd storeys.
This roof, made of sandstone or brick, can be either pyramidal or boat-shaped. My Son was rediscovered in by a group of French soldiers. In , C. Paris, a French scholar, was the first one to clear the My Son Sanctuary. Carpeaux, P. It starts with the main sanctuary, the kalan, number 1 , then the gate tower number 2 , and so on. Even though these categories break up the architectural complex of My Son as a whole, they are remarkably efficient for the study and maintenance of the ruins. After transferring the capital city, Ly Cong Uan had Citadel of Thang Long built and the citadel construction was finished in early The ancient Citadel of Thang Long was encircled by three incorporated forts.
The outer fort was Kinh Thanh Imperial City , where the general public lived. The second fort the middle ring was Hoang Thanh Imperial Citadel , where the royal court, offices and residence of mandarins were located. The smallest and most inner enclosure was Tu Cam Thanh Forbidden City where the king, queens and concubines lived in seclusion.
In , King Gia Long ordered the demolition of walls surrounding the Imperial Citadel of Thang Long and requested the building of a new, smaller citadel called Ha Noi Citadel with architectural style of Vauban France. Since the Vietnamese army took the control of the capital city in , the Ha Noi Citadel has become the headquarters of the Ministry of Defense. History revealed that Imperial Citadel of Thang Long changed a lot but its centre, especially Forbidden City, remained nearly unchanged. As architectural structures inside the Imperial Citadel were rebuilt and upgraded several times, this explained for the findings of layers of architectural vestiges and artefacts at archaeological site at 18 Hoang Dieu.
These vestiges reflect clearly relation between urban project and architectural space as well as succession of dynasties in building the Citadel of Thang Long. Here, archaeologists excavated a great deal of porcelain and ceramic wares used in the Imperial Citadel through various stages of development. The findings paved the way for researchers to study ceramics made in Thang Long and ceramic wares used in the Imperial Citadel of Thang Long through different dynasties.
It is also concrete evidence about high development level of economy and culture. In addition, porcelains and bronze coins of China, Japan, Western Asia… found here proved that Thang Long was centre of cultural exchange among countries in area and received quintessence values of humanity. The The base of the tower is square in form and consists of three levels constructed of brick in the form of pyramid frusta, each level reducing in size. The sides of the first level are The sides of the second level are 27m long and 3.
Each wall of this level is perforated by an arched door. Above three of which are stone Chinese inscriptions: The sides of the third floor are A door in the northern wall leads to stairs ascending to the flag tower.
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Doan Mon, together with an area behind it formerly known as Long Tri Dragon Courtyard , played a very important role in the ceremonies of the Royal Citadel such as the ceremony for national loyalty Oath ; Nhan Vuong Festival, Quang Chieu Colored Lantern Festival ; the parade of imperial guards and ceremonies for the mandarin examinations , , , …. In , the French colonists destroyed Kinh Thien Palace, except two sets of stone dragon steps.
Building D67 was erected, as its name suggests, in in the back of Dragon House with the length of From the outside, it appears much like an ordinary single storey house with a flat roof, but the details of its construction betray its military importance. A layer of sand on the roof protected the building from shrapnel penetration. The walls are 0.
There are two entrance doors, the outside one made of 1cm-thick steel. Hau Lau is built in the north the rear of Kinh Thien Palace for peace according to phong thuy feng shui principles. At the end of the 19th century, Hau Lau was seriously damaged due to war and reconstructed by French as military post of French army. The wall surrounded Kinh Thien Palace was build of vo brick.
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It has eight gates, of which two gates are located in the both sides of Doan Mon in the south, two gates in the back of Hau Lau in the north, one gate faces Nguyen Tri Phuong Street in the east, one gate faces Hoang Dieu Street in the west and two gates in the both sides of Kinh Thien Palace foundation. It was the capital of Viet Nam from to In the second month of the year of Dragon , after coming to the crown to replace the King Tran, Ho Quy Ly renamed the country Dai Ngu , the citadel of the Ho Dynasty officially became the capital citadel.
The citadel of the Ho Dynasty is considered as the only stone citadel remaining in Southeast Asia and is one of the few remains in the world. It is the criterion ii , "to exhibit an important interchange of human values, over a span of time or within a cultural area of the world, on developments in architecture or technology, monumental arts, town-planning or landscape design," and the criterion iv , "to be an outstanding example of a type of building, architectural or technological ensemble or landscape which illustrates a significant stage s in human history.
In the world heritage record, the citadel of the Ho Dynasty is briefly described as follows:. The citadel of the Ho Dynasty, built according to the feng shui principles, testifies to the flowering of neo-Confucianism in late 14th century in Viet Nam and its spread to other parts of East Asia.
According to these principles, it was sited in a landscape of great scenic beauty on an axis joining the Tuong Son and Don Son mountains in a plain between the Ma and Buoi rivers. In terms of architectural history, the citadel of the Ho Dynasty plays an important place in the planning and building of urban areas in Viet Nam. Thanks to the unique construction techniques all the major stone sections are intact and have not been affected by time and weather or by recent urban encroachment.
The citadel of the Ho Dynasty is an architectural masterpiece of the 14th century with impressive architecture of the walls and other parts. The citadel buildings represent an outstanding example of a new style of Southeast Asian imperial city with a combination between the Vietnamese architecture and the unique building techniques of Viet Nam, Southeast Asia and Eastern Asia.
According to historical documents, ancient bibliographies and archaeological research, the complex of the citadel of the Ho Dynasty includes Thanh Noi Inner Citadel and also known as Imperial Citadel with the remains of the royal palaces and temples inside; Hao Thanh; La Thanh and Nam Giao Altar for worshipping the Heaven. The Thanh Noi is a unique architectural work, with a circumference of 3,, an area of The Thanh Noi has four main gates made of green square stone plates beautifully carved and overlapped tightly one after another.
On the average, each stone plate is 1. The citadel is fairly square with about m long north and south sides, The stone plates on the dome are carved as sections of a grapefruit, tightly overlapping. The Front gate in the south is the main gate and has three doors. The middle door is 5. The side doors are 5. Each of three remaining gates has only one door, of which the Northern Gate is 5. The wall of the citadel is m high on average. The highest wall section is the front gate with the height of 10m. Called Hao Thanh, the system of water trench surrounded the Thanh Noi and connected with Buoi River through a canal at the southeast corner of the citadel.
The Hao Thanh had four stone bridges over to the Thanh Noi at the four gates. Nowadays, many parts of the Hao Thanh have been filled and dried.
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However, the traces of the Hao Thanh still can be seen very clearly in the north, east and south of the citadel. The La Thanh, the outer wall of the citadel built to protect the Thanh Noi was home to residents in the citadel. The La Thanh was approximately 10km in perimeter and its construction based on the natural terrain. The Nam Giao Altar, an importance royal architectural work, was built in in the southwest of Don Son Mountain, on the spiritual pathway directly connected with the Southern gate, about 2.
Currently, the altar appears 5 grounds with 5 terraces. There is a difference of 7.
The Nam Giao Altar is the place to sacrifice to the heaven; pray for harmonious rain and wind, peaceful country and happy people, prosperous and everlasting dynasty. In addition, the altar is also the place to sacrifice to the soul of dead kings, stars and many other genies. Nam Giao ceremony is considered as a royal ritual. The first Nam Giao ceremony of the Ho Dynasty was held in the same year of constructing the altar. At the citadel of the Ho Dynasty, apart from construction of the Nam Giao Altar and performance of Nam Giao ceremony in , the Ho Dynasty had left historical marks such as establishing Xa Tac Altar altar of the Earth Genie and the Shennong - the Divine Farmer in , organizing two state exams in and In addition, the Ho Dynasty had been associated with remarkable innovations, such as reforming examination, building more schools, heightening the Nom scripts and issuing paper-money.
Trang An displays the end stages of karst tower landscape evolution in a humid tropical environment. The product of deep dissection of an uplifted limestone massif over a period of millions years is a remarkable array of classical karst landforms, including cones and towers, depressions cockpits , valleys poljes , rockfall collapse structures and deposits, subterranean caverns and rivers, caves and speleothems.
A network of cross-cutting parallel faults divides the area into cells and promotes the development of enclosed depressions. An altitudinal series of erosional notches in rock walls with associated caves, wave-cut platforms, beach deposits and marine shells is evidence of former stands of sea level. In its ordinary meaning, Court Music is understood as music genres, including music for dance and opera, used in worshiping ceremonies, national court — organized festivities, and occasions of entertainment for Kings and Royal families. But the term Nha Nhac imported from China was used by Vietnamese feudal dynasties from the Ho Dynasty with different meanings, for example sometimes indicating general court music, sometimes court ritual music in particular, sometimes indicating music department, even a concrete orchestra.
The initial foundation of Nha Nhac — the Vietnamese Court Music began conceiving since the 13th century but it only reached the peak at the Hue Court under the Nguyen Dynasty The Court Music was officially formed along with the rise of Nguyen Dynasty in the early 19th century.
In the s, it began to attract attention of the Ministry of Culture and local authorities. In the s, Hue Court Music enjoyed renaissance. Thereafter Hue Court Music has been introduced much abroad.
The different genres of the Hue Court Music include worshiping ritual music, court ritual music, court dances, chamber music and opera royal classical opera - tuong. In the former times, Hue Court Music consisted of various genres: Giao Nhac used in the sacrifice ceremony to the Heaven and the Earth. Mieu Nhac used in worshipping ceremonies at the temples of meritorious ancestors of the Nguyen clan, Confucius, Nguyen Dynasty's literature doctors, national heroes; Ngu Tu Nhac used in Than Nong, Thanh Hoang, Xa Tac worshiping ceremonies; Dai Trieu Nhac used in great ceremonies or receptions of foreign ambassadors; Thuong Trieu Nhac used in ordinary court ceremonies; Yen Nhac used in great royal banquets; Cung Nhac or Cung Trung Nhac used inside the royal palaces.
Former Hue court dances were rich and performed on many occasions. The repertoire for court music genres mentioned above consisted of a variety musical pieces. Yet, in the declining stages, many of them were lost; only the words have been remained. The pieces still preserved are Muoi ban ngu or lien bo thap chuong - suite composed of 10 pieces including: Nguyen Dynasty court orchestras were divers in type and number of instruments, depending on the kind of royal rituals and entertainment.